Key Principles

Microclimates

Stacking

Intercropping

Contents

Beetroot

Beta vulgaris

Annual or biennial plant grown for a large taproot and edible leaves.

Likes partial shade (leaves) or full sun (roots). Tolerant of poor soil and pH.

Plant with brocolli, cabage, lettuce, marjoram, onions and potatoes. Avoid: tomato, climbing bean, mustards.

H <45cm, W <20cm, D <40cm

Carrot

Daucus carota

Annual or biennial plant grown for its long taproot.

Likes full sun, good drainage, acidic pH. Tolerant of drought

Plant with legumes, chives, coriander, cucumber, lettuce, marjoram, onion, radish, sage, tomato. Avoid dill.

H <3ocm, W <10cm, D <30cm

Garlic

Allium sativum

An annual plant grown for its root and fragrant, edible leaves.

Likes sun or partial shade, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with fruit trees, rosemary, mulberry. Avoid beans, peas, cabbage, strawberry.

H <40cm, W <30cm, D <20cm

Onion

Allium cepa

An annual grown for its bolbous root.

Likes full sun, shelter, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant with beets, cabbage, lettuce, marjoram, pasley, strawberry, tomato. Avoid legumes.

H <60cm, W <20cm, D <20cm

Parsnip

Pastinaca sativa

An annual or biennial plant grown for its long tuberous root.

Likes full or partial sun, deep, light soil, acidic pH.

Plant with beans, corriander, dill, cucumber, lettuce, marjoram, onion, peas, potato, radish, sage, tomato. Avoid cherry and celery.

H <60cm, W <30cm, D <50cm

Potato

Solanum tuberosum

A perennial or annual plant grown for its starchy tuber.

Likes full sun, rich soil, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant with beans, beets, cabbage, cauliflower, nasturtium, peas. Avoid celeriac

H <50cm, W <30cm, D <50cm

Radish

Raphanus raphanistrum

A fast growing annual grown for its small bolbous root.

Likes partial shade, moist soil, slightly acidic pH. Very tollerant.

Plant with beets, carrots, cucumber, lettuce, marjoram, nasturtium. Avoid alliums.

H <20cm, W <10cm, D <20cm

Swede

Brassica napus

An annual grown for its edible root and leaves.

Likes partial sun, open, heavy, moist soil, slightly alkaline pH

Plant with legumes and onions.

H <30cm, W <30cm, D <30cm

Turnip

Brassica rapa

An annual grown for its large taproot, edible leaves and to repel aphids.

Likes partial shade (leaves) or full sun (roots), moist soil, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with broccoli, peas, leafy greens. Avoid alliums.

H <30cm, W <10cm, D <20cm

Alfalfa

Medicago sativa

A perennial legume grown to break up ground, attract pollinators and for edible leaves and shoots.

Likes good drainage, slightly acidic pH. Tolerant of shade.

Plant with grains, cereals, leafy greens. Avoid alliums.

H <1m, W <1m, D <2m

Buckwheat

Fagopyrum esculentum

A hardy, fast growing perennial that attracts pollinators, supresses weeds and has edible seeds.

Likes full sun, good drainage, slightly acidic pH. Tolerates poor soil

Plant with almost all shade tollerant plants. Avoid excessive nitrogen.

H <1.3m, W <50cm, D <50cm

Clover

Trifolium repens

A herbacious, creeping perennial legume, grown for wildlife, as fooder and for edible leaves (boiled) and flowers.

Tollerant of soil quality, shade, exposure and pH.

Plant with leafy greens, herbs, fruit trees. Avoid gooseberries.

H <30cm, W <10cm, D <15cm

Comfrey

Symphytum officinale

A herbacious, perennial plant grown to attract pollinators, break up soil and to bring nutrients to the surface.

Likes partial to full sun, moist soil. Tollerant of pH.

Plant with other insect attractors and fruit trees (chop and drop mulch). 

H <1.5m, W <1.5m, D <60cm

Trefoil

Lotus corniculatus

A perennial legume grown for wildlife, pollinator attraction, sedative flowers.

Likes partial to full sun, moist soil, good drainage, slightly alkaline pH.

Plant with fruit trees and cabage. Avoid alliums.

H <20cm, W <20cm, D <15cm

Vetch

Vicia sativa

A scrambling annual legume grown for fodder and to attract pollinators.

Likes full sun, good drainage. Tollerant to soil quality and pH.

Plant with other legumes and cover crops. Avoid alliums.

H <75cm, W <2.5m, D <40cm

Cabbage

Brassica oleracea

An annual or biennial plant grown for its dense-leaved heads.

Needs full sun, firm soil, relatively little water, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with legumes, beets, borage, celery, herbs, nasturtium, onions, potato, spinach, chard. Avoid tomato, strawberry, grapes, dill, mustards.

H <60cm, W <40cm, D <60cm

Chard

Beta vulgaris

An annual plant grown for its delicious leaves and stems.

Likes partial shade or partial sun, open, rich, moist, firm soil, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with beans, brassicas, onions, tomato, radish, lettuce. Avoid herbs, potatoes cucumber.

H <50cm, W <60cm, D <30cm

Cress

Lepedium sativum

A small, fast growing edible plant suitable for hydroponics.

Needs partial shade, moist soil, slightly alkaline pH.

Plant with squash and radish. Useful for filling gaps. Avoid lettuce.

H <40cm, W <10cm, D <20cm

Lettuce

Lactuca sativa

An annual plant grown for its edible leaves and stems.

Likes full sun, moist soil, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with legumes, beets, cabbage, carrots, onions, cucumber, marigold, marjoram, radish, squash. Avoid parsley, celery, cabbage, cress.

H <40cm, W <40cm, D <40cm

Pak Choi

Brassica rapa var. Chinensis

A compact annual plant grown for its edible leaves and stems.

Likes full sun, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with legumes, beets, borage, celery, herbs, cucumber, marigold, lettuce, marjoram, nasturtium, onion, potato, garlic, spinach. Avoid tomato, strawberry, grapes.

H <60cm, W <30cm, D <25cm

Rocket

Eruca vesicaria

An annual plant grown for edible leaves, buds and flowers.

Likes partial shade, moist soil, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant withtomatoes, onions, chives, garlic, raspberries, beans, dill, lettuce, nasturtium, thyme. 

H <30cm, W <30cm, D <20cm

Spinach

Spinacea oleracea

Annual plant, grown for its edible leaves and anti-fungal properties.

Likes partial sun (full in winter), rich, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with almost all other plants for protection against fungal infection.

H <30cm, W <30cm, D <30cm

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

A herbacious perennial grown for edible leaves, flowers and taproot.

Very hardy, prefers good drainage and slightly alkaline soil.

Plant with fruit trees and legumes.

H <30cm, W <20cm, D <70cm

Daylily

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus

A perennial grown to attract pollinators and for its edible flowers.

Likes full sun, shelter rich soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with lavendar and sage

H <60cm, W <40cm, D <40cm

Honeysuckle

Lonicera caprifolium 

A hardy climbing perennial grown for its fragrance and to attract pollinators.

Likes full sun, moist soil, good drainage. Tollerant of pH.

Plant with shade tollerant others.

H <8m, W <3m, D <1m

Lupins

Lupinus angustifolius

A herbacious perennial leegume grown to attract pollinators and for its edible seeds

Likes partial to full sun, good drainage, slightly acidic pH. Tollerant of soil quality.

Plant with other legumes, grains and leafy greens. Avoid alliums.

H <1m, W <50cm, D <50cm

Marigold

Calendula officinalis

A herbacious, fragrant, perennial grown to attract pollinators and for edible flowers. 

Likes partial to full sun. Tollerant of soil quality, water and pH.

Plant with cucumber, potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes, asparagus, beans, onions.

H <80cm, W <40cm, D <30cm

Artichoke

Cynara cardunculus

A perennial plant grown for edible flower buds and roots.

Likes good drainage, slightly alkaline pH. Tollerant of drought and shade.

Plant with beans, peas and cabbage

H <1.8m, W <1.5m, D <1.2m

Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis

A perennial plant grown for its edible young shoots.

Likes good sun, exposure and good drainage. tollerant of drought and pH.

Plant with basil, marjoram, parsley and tomatoes.

H <1.5m, W <60cm, D <40cm

Broccoli

Brassica oleracea

An annual plant grown for its edible head and stalk.

Likes full sun, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with legumes, herbs, celery, marigold, lettuce, nasturtium, potatoes, onion, garlic, spinach. Avoid tomatoes, strawberry, grapes, other mustards.

H <1m, W <70cm, D <80cm

Celery

Apium graveolens

An annual plant grown for its edible stem.

Likes full sun, moist, deep, rich soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with legumes, cabbage, marjoram, tomatoes, onion, nasturtium. Avoid potatoes.

H <25cm, W <25cm, D <20cm

Leek

Allium ampeloprasum

A biennial or annual plant grown for its edible leaf sheathes.

Likes full sun, shelter, rich soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with beets, carrots, celery, marjoram, onion. Avoid legumes.

H <40cm, W <10cm, D <15cm

Rhubarb

Rheum rhabarbarum

A hardy, herbaceous perennial grown for fleshy, edible stalks.

Likes full sun, exposure, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant with almost onions, garlic, brassicas.

H <1.5m, W <1.5cm, D <80cm

Spring Onion

Allium fistulosum

A perennial plant grown for pest deterrence and its edible stem.

Likes partial sun, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with marjoram, brassicas. Avoid legumes.

H <25cm, W <5cm, D <10cm

Aubergine

Solanum melongena

A perennial or annual grown for its berry.

Likes full sun, warmth, shelter, moist soil, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant with beans, marjoram, potatoes, marigold.

H <1m, W <50cm, D <60cm

Cucumber

Cucurmis sativus

An annual creeping vine grown for its succulent fruit.

Requires full sun, fertile, moist soil, acidic pH.

Plant with marjoram, nasturtium. Avoid potatoes, herbs.

H <90cm, W <90cm, D <30cm

Pumpkin

Cucurbita maxima

Annual plant grown for huge round fruits with a hard shell.

Requires full sun, moist soil, shelter, acidic pH.

Plant with marjoram and nasturtium. Avoid potatoes.

H <60cm, W <3m, D <60cm

Squash

Cucurbita moschata

Annual plant grown for large fruits with a hard shell.

Requires full sun, moist soil, shelter, acidic pH.

Plant with marjoram and nasturtium. Avoid potatoes.

H <60cm, W <3m, D <60cm

Tomato

Solanum lycopersicum

Annual plant grown for its fruits.

Likes full sun, mosit, sheltered soil, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant with asparagus, basil, carrots, celery, borage, chives, gooseberry, grapes, mints, marjoram, onions, parsley, parsnips, herbs. Avoid, beets, cabbage, rosemary, potato.

H <60cm, W <60cm, D <60cm

Basil

Ocimum basilicum

An annual or perennial herb grown for edible leaves and potent fragrance.

Likes good sun, shelter, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with tomato, cucumber, fennel, asparagus.

H <60cm, W <20cm, D <20cm

Borage

Borago officinalis

An annual herb grown for edible flowers and leaves.

Likes good drainage. Tollerant of sunlight, shade, shelter and pH.

Plant with most other plants.

H <90cm, W <50cm, D <40cm

Chives

Allium schoenoprasum

A perennial herb grown for its edible leaves.

Likes partial sun, moist, deep soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with almost all other plants, considering shade tollerance. Avoid alliums (chives, garlic, onions), sunflowers, beets.

H <1.2m, W <30cm, D <70cm

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

An annual herb grown for edible leaves and seeds.

Likes partial shade, moist soil, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with brocolli, sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower. Avoid fennel.

H <60cm, W <30cm, D <25cm

Dill

Anethum graveolens

An annual or biennial herb grown for edible leaves and seeds.

Likes full sun, moist soil, good drainage, shelter. Tollerant of pH.

Plant with beets, broccoli, sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, tomato. Avoid most other plants, particularly fennel.

H <1m, W <50cm, D <30cm

Marjoram

Origanum majorana

A perennial herb or shrub grown for edible leaves, stems and to attract pollinators.

Likes good sun, shelter, good drainage, slightly alkaline pH.

Plant with asparagus, legumes, borage, nettle, broccoli, cabbage, chives, cucumber, onions, radish, spinach, lettuce, tomato. Avoid other mints.

H <90cm, W <45cm, D <40cm

Mint

Mentheae mentha

A perennial herb grown for its leaves, used in tea, cooking and as a sauce.

Likes moist soil, tollerant of sunlight, shade and pH.

Plant with cabbage, peas, lettuce. Avoid other mints.

H <50cm, W <60cm, D <60cm

Oregano

Origanum vulgare

A perennial herb grown for its leaves, usually dried and used as a spice.

Likes good drainage, slightly alkaline pH. Tollerant of sunlight. 

Plant with cabbage, peas, kale. Avoid other mints.

H <60cm, W <25cm, D <60cm

Parsley

Petroselinum crispum

Annual herb grown for its edible leaves, usually used as a spice or garnish.

Likes partial sun, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with asparagus, beans, chives, onions, rosemary, tomato. Avoid lettuce.

H <45cm, W <20cm, D <20cm

Tarragon

Artemisia dracunculus

A perennial herb or shrub grown for its leaves, pest deterrance and to nurse surrounding plants. 

Likes good sun, shelter, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with almost all other plants as will enhance growth and flavour.

H <80cm, W <30cm, D <25cm

Barberry

Berberis vulgaris

A perennial evergreen shrub grown for sour berries used in jams (add sugar).

Likes moist soil, good drainage, slightly alkaline pH. tollerant of pH.

Plant with fruit trees and cover crops.

H <3m, W <2.5m, D <1.5m

Blueberry

Vaccinium corymbosum

A perennial shrub grown for its berries.

Likes full sun, moist, light soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH. Tollerant of shade.

Plant with other berries, rhubarb, radishes, potatoes, endive and parsley.

H <1.5m, W <1m, D <60cm

Gooseberry

Ribes uva-crispa

A perennial shrub grown for its sour berries.

Needs full sun, prefers slightly acidic pH. Tollerant of poor soil and drought.

Plant with legumes (in moderation), tomato, chives, garlic, other berries.

H <1.5m, W <1.5m, D <1m

Lavender

Ocimeae lavandula

A perennial evergreen shrub grown for fragrant flowers used as a flavouring and benefit to pollinators.

Likes full sun, good drainage. Tollerant of pH.

Plant with cabbage, garlic, roses, strawberries, other shrubs/ herbs.

H <70cm, W <60cm, D <25cm

Raspberry

Rubus idaeus

A woody, perennial shrub grown for its berries.

Likes sheltered, moist, fertile soil, acidic pH. Tollerant of some shade.

Plant with garlic, turnip, chives, nasturtium, leeks, onnions. Avoid potatoes, strawberries, tomatoes.

H <1.5m, W <1m, D <1m

Rosemary

Salvia rosmarinus

An evergreen, bushy, shrub grown for its spiney leaves used as a flavouring.

Likes full sun, good drainage. Tollerant of drought and pH.

Plant with almost all other plants, considering shade tollerance. Avoid alliums (chives, garlic, onions), sunflowers, beets.

H <2m, W <2m, D <30cm

Sage

Salvia officinalis

A hardy, perennial, evergreen shrub grown for leaves used as a flavouring.

Likes fulll sun, shelter, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with almost all other plants, considering shade tollerance. Avoid alliums (chives, garlic, onions), sunflowers, beets.

H <75cm, W <2m, D <45cm

Strawberry

Fragaria ananassa

A hardy, perennial shrub grown for its berries.

Likes good sun, shelter, good drainage, acidic pH.

Plant with legumes, borage, chives, marigold, lavender, lettuce, onions, sage, spinach. Avoid potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage.

H <50cm, W <60cm, D <30cm

Thyme

Thymus vulgaris

A perennial evergreen grown for its fragrant leaves used as a flavouring.

Likes full sun, good drainage, alkaline pH preference. Tollerant of drought.

Plant with cabbage, roses. Avoid other mints.

H <50cm, W <50cm, D <20cm

Broadbean

Vicia faba

A climbing annual legume, grown for its edible seeds and pods.

Likes partial sun, moist, deep soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with almost all other plants, considering shade tollerance. Avoid alliums (chives, garlic, onions), sunflowers, beets.

H <1.2m, W <30cm, D <70cm

Garden Pea

Pisum sativum

A climbing annual legume, grown for its edible seeds and pods.

Likes full sun, moist, rich, deep soil, good drainage, cool weather, tolerant of exposure and pH.

Plant with almost all other plants, considering shade tollerance. Avoid alliums (chives, garlic, onions).

H <1m, W <20cm, D <60cm

Grape Vine

Vitis vinfera

A climbing perennial, woody plant grown for its berries.

Likes good sun, wramth, shelter, good drainage, acidic pH

Plant with herbs, basil, beans, clover, peas, garlic, chives, mint. Avoid brassicas and radishes. 

H <10m, W <2m, D <70cm

Jasmine

Jasminium officinale

A hardy, perennial vine grown for its fragrant flowers used in tea.

Likes good sun, shelter, moist soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH.

Plant with cover crops, understory plants, other fragrant flowers.

H <10m, W <5m, D <5m

Nasturtium

Tropaeolum majus

A climbing perennial plant grown for edible flowers, leaves & stems.

Likes full sun & rich soil (flowers), or shade & poor soil (leaves), good drainage, tolerant of pH.

Plant with fruit trees, brocolli, cabbage, cucumber, potatoe, radish, squash, tomato, mulberry.

H <2m, W <2m, D <70cm

Runner Bean

Phaseolus coccineus

A climbing annual legume, grown for its edible seeds and pods.

Likes good sun, moist, rich, deep soil, good drainage, slightly acidic pH, tolerant of exposure.

Plant with almost all other plants, considering shade tollerance. Avoid alliums (chives, garlic, onions), sunflowers, beets.

H <1.2m, W <30cm, D <60cm

Apple

Malus domestica

An attractive tree grown for its large fruits.

Usually likes full sun, shelter, moist, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH.

Plant with lavender, legumes, marigold, nasturtiums, borage, coriander, dill, basil, chives.

H <7m, W <4m, D <4m

Cherry

Prunus avium

An attractive tree grown for its stone fruits and wood.

Likes full sun, shelter, moist, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH.

Plant with lavender, legumes, marigold, nasturtiums, borage, coriander, dill, basil, chives.

H <7m, W <4m, D <4m

Damson

Prunus insititia

An attractive tree grown for its plum-like stone fruits.

Likes full sun, shelter, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH.

Plant with legumes, berries, herbs, marigold, nasturtiums, foxgloves, chives, cover crops.

H <8m, W <5m, D <5m

Juniper

Juniperus communis

fragrant, hardy tree grown for its berries and wood.

Likes moist, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH, tolerant of shade & exposure.

Plant with other fruit trees, legumes, berries, herbs, bamboo.

H <10m, W <3m, D <6m

Hackberry

Prunus padus

A fast-growing, bushy tree grown for its nutritious stone-fruits, usually jammed.

Likes moist, deep soil, good drainage, tollerant of shade, drought, exposure & pH.

Plant with other fruit trees, berries, cover crops & herbs.

H <12m, W <6m, D <6m

Hawthorn

Crategus monogyna

A prickly tree grown for its edible berries, leaves & buds.

Likes deep soil, good drainage, tollerant of shade, exposure & pH.

Plant with other fruit trees, berries, cover crops & herbs.

H <6m, W <4m, D <3m

Medlar

Mespilus germanica

small tree grown for winter fruits, usually jammed.

Likes full sun, deep soil, good drainage, shelter, neutral pH. 

Plant with legumes, berries, herbs, alliums, comfrey, clover.

H <3m, W <3m, D <2m

Pear

Pyrus communis

An attractive tree grown for its large fruits.

Likes full sun, shelter, moist, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH.

Plant with lavender, legumes, marigold, nasturtiums, borage.

H <6m, W <3m, D <3m

Plum

Prunus domestica

An attractive tree grown for its stone fruits.

Likes full sun, shelter, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH.

Plant with berries, legumes, herbs,  marigold, nasturtiums, chives.

H <6m, W <3m, D <3m

Sloe

Prunus spinosa

A tree grown for its plum-like stone fruits.

Likes full sun, shelter, deep soil, good drainage, acid pH.

Plant with berries, legumes, herbs,  cover crops, other fruit trees, marigolds, foxgloves, nasturtiums.

H <4m, W <4m, D <2.5m